Development of an Internal Reforming Alcohol High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack

IRAFC
Project Information
Framework Programme: 
FP7
Call for proposals: 
2008
Application area: 
Early markets

The main objective of the proposal is the development of an internal reforming alcohol high temperature PEM fuel cell. Accomplishment of the project objective will be made through:

• Design and synthesis of robust polymer electrolyte membranes for HT-PEMFCs, which will be functional within the temperature range of 190-220oC.

• Development of alcohol (methanol or ethanol) reforming catalysts for the production of CO-free hydrogen in the temperature range of HT PEMFCs, i.e. at 190-220oC.

• Integration of reforming catalyst and high temperature MEA in a compact Internal Reforming Alcohol High Temperature PEMFC (IRAFC). Integration may be achieved via different configurations as related to the position of the reforming catalyst. The proposed compact system does away with conventional fuel processors and allows for efficient heat management, since the “waste” heat produced by the fuel cell is in-situ utilized to drive the endothermic reforming reaction. The targeted power density of the system is 0.15 W/cm2 at a cell voltage of 0.7V. Thus, the concepts of a catalytic reformer and of a fuel cell are combined in a single, simplified direct alcohol (e.g. methanol) High Temperature PEM fuel cell reactor. The heart of the system is the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) comprising a high-temperature proton-conducting electrolyte sandwiched between the anodic (reforming catalyst + Pt/C) and cathodic Pt/C gas diffusion electrodes. According to the configuration and the operating conditions described above, the IRAFC is expected to be autothermal, highly efficient and with zero CO emissions. In addition, the direct consumption of H2 by the MEA (fuel cell) and the electrochemical promotion effect is expected to enhance the kinetics of reforming reactions, thus facilitating the efficient operation of the reforming catalyst at temperatures below 220°C.

Project details
Project reference: 
245202
Topic: 
SP1-JTI-FCH-4.2: Fuel supply technology for portable and micro FC
Project type: 
Basic and long-term research
Contract type: 
Collaborative Project
Start date: 
Friday, January 1, 2010
End date: 
Sunday, June 30, 2013
Duration: 
36 months (originally), extended to 42 months
Project cost: 
€ 2,427,821.60
Project funding: 
€ 1,424,147
Coordinator: 

Advanced Energy Technologies, Greece

Contact: 
Dr. Joannis Kallitsis
Other participating organisations: 
University of Maria Curie-Sklodowska Poland
Nedstack Fuel Cell Technology BV The Netherlands
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) France
Foundation  for Research and Technology HELLAS                        Greece
Institut für Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH Germany
Patents and Publications
Patents: 
GR20110100058 A, ADVENT S.A., UNIVERSITY OF PATRAS, FORTH/ICE-HT, "CROSS-LINKED OR NON-CROSS-LINKED AROMATIC COPOLYMERIC PROTON-CONDUCTING ELECTROLYTES FOR POLYMERIC MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS"
US2012/0202,129, ADVENT SA, FORTH/ICE-HT, UNIVERSITY OF PATRAS, "CROSSLINKED OR NON-CROSSLINKED AROMATIC (CO)POLYMERS AS PROTON CONDUCTORS FOR USE IN HIGH TEMPERATURE PEM FUEL CELLS"
Publications: 
Konstantinia D. Papadimitriou, Fotis Paloukis, Stylianos G. Neophytides, and Joannis K. Kallitsis, Macromolecules 18/05/2011, 4942-4951, "Cross-Linking of Side Chain Unsaturated Aromatic Polyethers for High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Applications"
Vasiliki Papaefthimiou, Thierry Dintzer, Véronique Dupuis, Alexandre Tamion, Florent Tournus, Arnaud Hillion, Detre Teschner, Michael Hävecker, Axel, ACS Nano 10/02/2011, 2182-2190, "Nontrivial Redox Behavior of Nanosized Cobalt: New Insights from Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron and Absorption Spectroscopies"
Vasiliki Papaefthimiou, Thierry Dintzer, Véronique Dupuis, Alexandre Tamion, Florent Tournus, Detre Teschner, Michael Hävecker, Axel Knop-Gericke, R, Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 04/04/2011, 900-904, "When a Metastable Oxide Stabilizes at the Nanoscale: Wurtzite CoO Formation upon Dealloying of PtCo Nanoparticles"
G. Avgouropoulos. T. Ioannides, J.K. kallitsis, S. Neophytides, Chemical Engineering Journal 23/05/2011, 95-101, " Development of an Internal Reforming Methanol Fuel Cell: Concept, Challenges and Opportunities"
Christina Morfopoulou, Aikaterini K. Andreopoulou, Joannis K. Kallitsis, Journal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry 15/10/2011, 4325-4334, "The effect of structural variations on aromatic polyethers for high temperature PEM fuel cells"
Joan Papavasiliou, George Avgouropoulos, Theophilos Ioannides, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 01/11/2012, 16739-16747, "CuMnOx catalysts for internal reforming methanol fuel cells: Application aspects"
G. Avgouropoulos, S. G. Neophytides, Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 01/09/2012, 719-726, "Performance of internal reforming methanol fuel cell under various methanol/water concentrations"
Ioannis Kalamaras, Maria K. Daletou, Stylianos G. Neophytides, Joannis K. Kallitsis, Journal of Membranes Science 01/10/2012, 42-50, "Thermal crosslinking of aromatic polyethers bearing pyridine groups for use as high temperature polymer electrolytes"
Spiros Zafeiratos, Simone Piccinin and Detre Teschner, Catalysis Science and Technology 26/01/2012, 1787-1801, "Alloys in catalysis: phase separation and surface segregation phenomena in response to the reactive environment"
Y. T. Law, T. Skála, I. Píš, V. Nehasil, M. Vondráček , and S. Zafeiratos, Journal of Physical Chemistry C 12/04/2012, 10048-10056, "Bimetallic Nickel-Cobalt Nanosized Layers Supported on Polar ZnO Surfaces: Metal-Support Interaction and Alloy Effects Studied by Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy"
V. Papaefthimiou, T. Dintzer, M. Lebedeva, D. Teschner, M. Hävecker, A. Knop-Gericke, R. Schlögl, V. Pierron-Bohnes, E. Savinova, and S. Zafeiratos, Journal of Physical Chemistry C 11/06/2012, 14342-14349, "Probing Metal-Support Interaction in Reactive Environments: An in Situ Study of PtCo Bimetallic Nanoparticles Supported on TiO2"
Andrea Vöge, Valadoula A. Deimede, Joannis K. Kallitsis, Journal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry 04/10/2011, 207-216, "Side chain crosslinking of aromatic polyethers for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell applications"
Roland L. Barbosa, Vasiliki Papaefthimiou, Yeuk T. Law, Detre Teschner, Michael Hävecker, Axel Knop-Gericke, Ralf Zapf, Gunther Kolb, Robert Schlögl, Journal of Physical Chemistry C 07/03/2013, 6143-6150, "Methanol Steam Reforming over Indium-Promoted Pt/Al2O3 Catalyst: Nature of the Active Surface"
Christina I. Morfopoulou, Aikaterini K. Andreopoulou, Maria K. Daletou, Stylianos G. Neophytides and Joannis K. Kallitsis, Journal of Materials Chemistry 07/12/2012, 1613-1622, "Cross linked high temperature polymer electrolytes through oxadiazole bond formation and their applications in HT PEM fuel cells"
Konstantinia D. Papadimitriou, Maria Geormezi, Stylianos G. Neophytides, Joannis K. Kallitsis, Journal of Membranes Science 15/04/2013, 1-9, "Covalent crosslinking in phosphoric acid of pyridine based aromatic polyethers bearing side double bonds for use in high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells"
G. Kolb, S. Keller , M. O’Connell , S. Pecov , J. Schuerer , B. Spasova , D. Tiemann , and A. Ziogas, Energy and Fuels 13/02/2013, 4395–4402, "Microchannel Fuel Processors as Hydrogen Source for Fuel Cells in Distributed Energy Supply Systems"
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